Police car in Budapest, Hungary

La minaccia che salverà l’Europa

BRUSSELS – Per l'Unione europea, il 2015 è stato un altro anno di sfide fondamentali. Due elementi chiave dell'integrazione europea - l'euro e la libera circolazione all'interno dell’area Schengen - sono stati messi a dura prova. E nessuno dei due è al sicuro. Tuttavia, uno sviluppo nel 2015 offre un motivo per sperare che i leader europei facciano qualcosa di più che "fare quel che si può" per implementare soluzioni più coraggiose nel 2016: la minaccia di espulsione ha guadagnato credibilità.

La crisi economica globale iniziata nel 2008 ha messo in luce i difetti profondi dell'Unione monetaria europea, anche se è stata necessaria l'esperienza della crisi dell'euro del 2010-2012 per costringere i leader europei ad agire, con la creazione di un grande fondo per aiutare i paesi in difficoltà e l'istituzione di un'unione bancaria. Anche così, più di tre anni dopo, quell’unione - che comporta il controllo da parte della Banca centrale europea e l'avvio di un fondo per la ristrutturazione delle banche in fallimento, ma senza un sistema comune di assicurazione dei depositi - è lontano dall'essere perfetto.

Nonostante i suoi difetti, l’unione bancaria ha contribuito a mantenere calmi i mercati finanziari nella prima metà del 2015, anche se il nuovo governo greco, guidato dal primo ministro Alexis Tsipras, ha sfidato una caratteristica fondamentale dell’approccio dell'Europa alle crisi finanziarie nazionali: i beneficiari del sostegno devono impegnarsi a stringere la cinghia. Nel referendum di luglio, gli elettori greci si sono espressi contro l’austerità, respingendo completamente le condizioni che i creditori della Grecia avevano chiesto in cambio di un nuovo piano di salvataggio.

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