Police car in Budapest, Hungary

拯救欧洲的威胁

布鲁塞尔—对欧盟来说,2015年又是一个根本变化之年。欧洲一体化的两大关键要素——欧元和申根区无国界自由旅行——承受了巨大压力。并且压力都没有减轻。尽管如此,2015年的一大发展趋势让我们有理由希望欧洲领导人能够超越“得过且过”,在2016年实施更加果断的方案。这一趋势就是驱逐威胁日益可信。

始于2008年的全球经济危机暴露出欧洲货币联盟的深刻缺陷,尽管2010—2012年欧元危机的濒死经验才迫使欧洲领导人有所反应,成立了一个巨型基金帮助受困国家,并建立了一个银行联盟。尽管如此,三年多后,这一联盟——它包括欧洲央行的监督以及成立一个重组破产银行的激进,但缺少共同存款保险机制——仍然漏洞百出。

尽管有各种缺陷,但银行联盟在2015年上半年帮助金融市场保持平稳,即使总理齐普拉斯领导的希腊新政府叫板欧洲处理国家金融危机的基本原则:接受支持的国家必须勒紧裤腰带。在7月份的全民公决中,希腊选民选择了齐普拉斯所想要的结果,决然地拒绝了希腊债权人所提出的新援助方案的交换条件——包括严厉紧缩。

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