german euro coin Mouser Williams/Flickr

Dá se euro opravit?

PAŘÍŽ – Když německý ministr financí Wolfgang Schäuble nedávno položil na stůl možnost odchodu Řecka z eurozóny, chtěl tím dát najevo, že se žádná členská země nemůže vyvázat z přísné disciplíny měnové unie. Ve skutečnosti však jeho iniciativa vyvolala mnohem širší diskusi o principech upravujících euro, jeho řízení i samotných důvodech jeho existence.

Pouhé dva týdny před Schäubleho návrhem přitom vedoucí evropští představitelé nechali prakticky bez povšimnutí zprávu o budoucnosti eura, kterou připravili předseda Evropské komise Jean-Claude Juncker a jeho kolegové z ostatních institucí Evropské unie. Nový spor o Řecko však mnohé politiky přesvědčil o nutnosti návratu k rýsovacímu prknu. Občané si zatím kladou otázku, proč mají společnou měnu, zda to má smysl a zda lze dospět k dohodě o její budoucnosti.

Pro měny stejně jako pro státy jsou důležité mýty o vzniku. Podle konvenčního výkladu bylo euro politickou cenou, kterou Německo zaplatilo za francouzský souhlas se sjednocením. Ve skutečnosti německé sjednocení pouze poskytlo konečný impulz projektu vymyšlenému v 80. letech s cílem vyřešit dlouhodobé dilema. Evropské vlády měly silnou averzi vůči plovoucím devizovým kurzům, o nichž předpokládaly, že budou neslučitelné s jednotným trhem, ale současně nebyly ochotné zavést měnový režim ovládaný Bundesbankou. Skutečně evropská měna stojící na německých principech se jevila jako nejlepší cesta vpřed.

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