ECB headquarters Frankfurt Luo Huanhuan/ZumaPress

Demokratisasi di Eurozone

ATHENA – Layaknya Macbeth, pembuat kebijakan cenderung melakukan dosa-dosa baru untuk menutupi perilaku buruk mereka yang terdahulu. Dan sistem-sistem politik membuktikan betapa berharganya mereka melalui seberapa cepat mereka mampu mengakhiri kesalahan kebijakan yang dibuat para pejabatnya secara terus-menerus. Jika dikaji berdasarkan standar ini, maka Eurozone, terdiri dari 19 negara demokrasi yang mapan, justry tertinggal dibandingkan negara dengan perekonomian non-demokrasi terbesar di dunia.

Selepas permulaan terjadinya resesi yang didahului dengan krisis keuangan global pada tahun 2008, pembuat kebijakan di Tiongkok menghabiskan waktu tujuh tahun untuk  menggantikan lemahnya kebutuhan atas ekspor bersih di negara tersebut dengan investment bubble lokal, yang diperbesar karena penjualan lahan secara agresif oleh pemerintah daerah. Ketika hari perhitungan datang di musim panas ini, para pemimpin di Tiongkok mengeluarkan $200 miliar yang merupakan cadangan devisa yang diperoleh dengan susah payah seolah-olah berperan sebagai Knut yang Agung berupaya mencegah pasang-surutnya kekalahan di pasar modal.

Akan tetapi, dibandingkan dengan Uni Eropa, upaya pemerintah Tiongkok untuk memperbaiki kesalahannya – pada akhirnya membiarkan suku bunga dan nilai saham merosot – nampak seperti teladan yang baik atas kecepatan dan efisiensi. Memang benar bahwa gagalnya “program konsolidasi dan reformasi fiskal” Yunani dan sikap pemimpin Eropa yang masih berpegang teguh meskipun sudah ada bukti selama lima tahun bahwa program ini tidak mungkin berhasil, menjadi gejala atas kegagalan tata kelola pemerintahan Eropa yang lebih luas, suatu hal yang memiliki akar historis yang mendalam.

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