Greek flag and EU flag Greek Parliament Michael Debets/ZumaPress

Un governo pensato per l’Eurozona

ATENE – I guai della Grecia disintegrano l’unione monetaria dell’Europa o svelano come poterla salvare? Il recente e controverso accordo di salvataggio – da alcuni paragonato al Trattato di Versailles del 1919, con la Grecia nel ruolo della Germania – segna l’ultima svolta della saga esistenziale dell’Eurozona. L’accordo ha causato una rottura in Syriza, il partito greco di sinistra al governo; ha creato una spaccatura tra la cancelliera tedesca Angela Merkel e il suo inflessibile ministro delle finanze, Wolfgang Schäuble; e ha spinto la Francia a riaffermarsi all’interno dell’asse franco-tedesco da sempre considerato il “motore” dell’integrazione europea.

Nel frattempo, molti economisti keynesiani del Nord America, come i premi Nobel Paul Krugman e Joseph Stiglitz, simpatizzano con la posizione anti-austerity della Grecia. Altri economisti, soprattutto in Europa, sostengono che spetti alla Germania, vista la propria preminenza economica, assumere un ruolo politico e accettare accordi di condivisione della sovranità (e del debito) per garantire all’unione monetaria coesione e sostenibilità. Umiliare un piccolo paese e renderlo un protettorato virtuale non giova all’interesse a lungo termine dell’Europa.

Eppure la posta in gioco è esattamente questa. La Grecia ha siglato l’accordo dopo aver affrontato l’esplicito invito di Schäuble a lasciare – temporaneamente – l’Eurozona e ad adottare una nuova moneta. La posizione della Germania ha segnato la prima sfida aperta da parte di una potenza europea all’idea che l’unione monetaria sia irrevocabile. Come hanno prontamente fatto notare i francesi, istintivamente solidali con la tesi di anti-austerity e consci del loro ruolo sempre più marginale nella partnership franco-tedesca, la posizione della Germania indica anche una potenziale transizione da “Germania europea” a “Europa tedesca”.

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