Greek flag and EU flag Greek Parliament Michael Debets/ZumaPress

欧元区应有的政府

雅典—希腊问题会摧毁欧洲货币联盟吗?还是揭示了应该如何拯救欧元区?争议重重的最新协议——有些类似于1919年的《凡尔赛和约》,今天的希腊相当于当时的德国——可谓欧元区存在神话的新转折。该协议导致了希腊左翼执政党左翼联盟(Syriza)的分裂,也让德国总理默克尔和她的坚决不妥协的财政部长朔伊布勒之间的分歧,还促使法国重新评估其在一直充当着欧洲一体化“引擎”的法德轴心中的作用。

与此同时,许多美国凯恩斯主义经济学家,如诺贝尔经济学奖获得者保罗·克鲁格曼(Paul Krugman)和约瑟夫·斯蒂格利茨(Joseph Stiglitz),表示同情希腊的反紧缩立场。其他经济学家(主要是欧洲经济学家)认为希腊必须扮演与其经济重要性相当的政治角色,必须接受主权分享(和债务共担)安排以确保货币联盟的凝聚力和可持续性。羞辱一个小国、使其沦为被保护国不符合欧洲的长期利益。

但这一局面近在眼前。在朔伊布勒明确要求希腊退出欧元区——据说是临时退出——采用新货币后,希腊在协议上签了字。德国的立场标志着欧洲领导力量首次公开挑战货币联盟不可动摇的概念。本质上同情反紧缩立场、意识到自己在法德合作中日益沦为配角的法国很快注意到,德国的立场也标志着从“欧洲德国”向“德国欧洲”的潜在变化。

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