mass anti-EU rally in Athens in 2015 NurPhoto

Può l’Unione Europea sopravvivere al populismo?

BRUSSELS – Un altro anno, un'altra minaccia per la sopravvivenza dell'Unione europea. La buona notizia è che il più grande evento di rottura del 2016, il voto della Gran Bretagna per uscire dall’Ue, appare gestibile. La cattiva notizia è che la Francia e l'Italia sono di fronte alla prospettiva di un cambio di gestione politica populista quest'anno. In entrambi i casi il risultato potrebbe significare la fine dell’Unione Europea.

L'Ue ultimamente è diventata un obiettivo primario per i populisti. Il fenomeno prima prese piede in Grecia, quando il partito di sinistra Syriza è salito al potere nel gennaio del 2015. Ma Syriza non stava cercando di tirare la Grecia fuori dell'Ue; piuttosto, voleva un accordo migliore con i creditori del paese, che avevano imposto misure di austerità devastanti ai cittadini greci.

L'approccio di Syriza in gran parte riflette la volontà del popolo. Nel referendum di giugno 2015, gli elettori quasi all’unanimità hanno respinto un accordo proposto dai creditori della Grecia che avrebbe significato ancora più austerità. Tuttavia, l'accettazione da parte del governo di un accordo sostanzialmente invariato, proprio pochi giorni dopo, ha ricevuto un ampio sostegno.Gli elettori greci hanno capito che non valeva la pena perdere l’adesione alla zona euro in cambio di condizioni migliori.

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