European Union Parliament

Europe : la goutte qui fait déborder le vase ?

PRINCETON – L’Union européenne est confrontée à un ensemble de crises réellement terrifiant. Après que les crises de la zone euro et de la dette souveraine aient polarisé et radicalisé le continent, créant un profond clivage entre le nord et le sud, l’arrivée de centaines de milliers de réfugiés a dressé l’est (et le Royaume-Uni) contre l’ouest. Si l’on y ajoute les nombreuses autres divisions et contradictions, l’effondrement de l’UE semble pour beaucoup d’observateurs plus probable aujourd’hui que jamais.

Prenons par exemple les divergences importantes entre les politiques énergétiques des pays membres de l’UE, avec des structures tarifaires qui vont à l’encontre du concept de marché unique. Ces pays ont également adopté des solutions incompatibles, compliquant à l’extrême l’intégration des réseaux énergétiques nationaux.

Alors que l’essentiel de l’électricité produite en France est d’origine nucléaire, l’Allemagne s’est empressée de fermer ses centrales au lendemain de la fusion du réacteur nucléaire de Fukushima au Japon en 2011. Aujourd’hui, l’Allemagne, comme l’Espagne, mettent l’accent sur les énergies renouvelables, éolienne et solaire notamment – mais ces pays restent fortement dépendants des combustibles fossiles lorsque le vent ne souffle pas ou que le soleil ne brille pas.

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