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La direction européenne est en crise

BRUXELLES – La liste des crises qui secouent l’Union européenne ne cesse de s’allonger. Mais au-delà du vote pour le Brexit au Royaume-Uni, de l’imbroglio autour du tribunal constitutionnel polonais, de l’expansionnisme russe, des migrants et des réfugiés et de la résurgence des nationalismes, la plus grande menace pesant sur l’UE vient de l’intérieur : une crise de sa direction politique qui paralyse ses institutions.

Comme pour le prouver, les dirigeants des États membres se sont récemment réunis à Bratislava, en Slovaquie (à l’exception de la Première ministre britannique, Theresa May), dans l’espoir de démontrer leur solidarité et de relancer le processus de réformes d’après-Brexit. Les participants ont fait quelques progrès vers la création d’une Union européenne de la défense, qui serait la bienvenue, et vers la reconnaissance des défauts du cadre organisationnel actuel, qui n’est plus viable. En revanche, il fut peu question de réforme institutionnelle ou économique de quelque importance.

S’il en était besoin, le refus du Premier ministre italien Matteo Renzi d’apparaître, en conclusion du sommet, à la conférence de presse donnée conjointement par le président français François Hollande et la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel confirme les craintes qu’une direction à la dérive alimente un dysfonctionnement institutionnel. Un sommet censé afficher l’unité ne révèle que des dissensions plus vives.

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