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Une Europe plurielle ?

BRUXELLES – Les crises économiques qui ont secoué l'UE au cours des cinq dernières années ont creusé un fossé entre les pays créanciers du nord et ceux endettés du sud. Et maintenant, avec la crise des migrants apparaît un clivage est/ouest entre les pays qui s'ouvrent au flux de réfugiés et ceux qui ferment leurs frontières ou ne veulent pratiquement rien faire. Ajoutons à cela les divergences politiques de plus en plus marquées entre pays membres et l'ont peut se demander si l'UE n'est pas en train de se désagréger.

La fracture entre pays créditeurs et débiteurs est apparue au grand jour cet été, lors des négociations sur le troisième plan de sauvetage pour la Grèce. On a alors accusé l'Allemagne, principal partisan de l'austérité et créancier le plus influent, de manquer de flexibilité et de solidarité ; quant à la Grèce, on l'a critiquée pour ne pas appliquer les réformes auxquelles elle s'était engagée à l'occasion des deux premiers plans de secours. C'est la France qui n'est ni tout à fait du nord ni tout à fait du sud qui a finalement joué le rôle crucial d'intermédiaire pour parvenir à l'accord final.

L'Allemagne essaye d'avoir également le rôle principal dans la crise des migrants, mais cette fois par générosité. La chancelière Angela Merkel s'est engagée à accueillir plus de 800 000 réfugiés cette année ; les Allemands sont allés en masse dans les rues et dans les gares pour offrir de l'eau, de la nourriture et des vêtements à des migrants épuisés, dont beaucoup avaient parcouru des centaines de kilomètres à pied et risqué leur vie pour trouver un lieu où ils seraient en sécurité.

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