欧洲的代际冲突

伦敦—随着欧洲金融危机由急性转为慢性,关于谁来承担解决危机的成本的争论正在让新一代政治运动浮出水面。在所谓的外围,政治新贵向人民承诺采取紧缩的替代方案。在欧元区的“核心”国家,他们宣称要保护纳税人免受拯救债务国的无理要求的折磨。欧洲领导人如何应对这些新的政治挑战将决定货币联盟是走向稳定还是分裂。

在过去的大部分时间里,欧洲政治精英极力主张融合。他们大多是二战后一代,十分清楚和平的欧洲的好处。20世纪90年代,关于欧洲一体化的不同愿景催生了有问题的妥协。为了确保法国支持德国的重新统一,德国同意建立货币联盟——而不是财政联盟。如今,欧洲正在经受这一浮士德式讨价还价的后果。

与此同时,欧洲领导人面临新一代选民的压力,他们成长于柏林墙倒塌的影响下。铁幕的升起让西方得到了来自东欧的充足的廉价劳动力供应。随后,中国的崛起让廉价劳动力供应进一步扩大了,并在2001年中国加入世贸组织时达到高峰。结果,许多欧洲经济体开始落后。

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