L’Europe et la défense de l’Afrique

WASHINGTON, DC – L’Union européenne affronte déjà des risques considérables en ce qui concerne sa structure, une relance économique incertaine, les déséquilibres entre le Nord et le Sud et l’hésitation des Britanniques à s’y joindre. Ces risques sont augmentés par son exposition aux dangers multiples de sécurité en Afrique.

La grande partie de l’Afrique au nord de l’Équateur continue d’être le théâtre d’évènements violents et potentiellement explosifs. Les giboulées du printemps arabe n’ont pas donné une récolte intéressante de dirigeants, encore moins de vendanges démocratiques. L’anarchie, le banditisme et le terrorisme des affiliés et des aspirants recrues d’Al-Qaïda, qui sont le lot des champs gaziers d’Algérie et du Mali, peuvent dégénérer en une menace encore plus dangereuse.

Les États-Unis sont de plus en plus réticents à jouer le rôle de gendarme international, car le pays réexamine, réduit et réoriente ses engagements stratégiques. Les pays européens – surtout le Royaume-Uni et la France, vu le retrait de l’Allemagne d’un engagement militaire – devront régler seuls les problèmes de sécurité africaine. Heureusement, les puissances européennes ont clairement démontré une certaine volonté de le faire, surtout dans l’intervention en Libye et au Mali.

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