La politique étrangère de l’Europe, après la Lybie

LISBON/RIGA – S’il y a un message positif à tirer de la création d’une coalition internationale pour protéger la population civile en Lybie, c’est que l’Europe compte encore sur la scène mondiale. Le leadership de la France et du Royaume-Uni a fourni une impulsion déterminante au rassemblement d’une alliance de soutien incluant la Ligue arabe et les Etats-Unis, ainsi qu’au dépassement des divisions qui empoisonnent souvent les tentatives de l’Europe pour affirmer son poids sur la scène mondiale (Allemagne, nous te visons).

L’intervention en Lybie représente aussi un confluent de plusieurs tendances de plus long terme. Le European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR, Conseil européen des relations étrangères, ndt) vient de publier sa première European Foreign Policy Scorecard annuelle (note d’évaluation de la politique étrangère européenne, ndt). Il y identifie ces tendances au moyen de l’analyse de 80 décisions de politique étrangère. Dans leur ensemble, ces tendances suggèrent que, malgré une tendance au repli sur soi en 2010, l’Europe est en train de trouver les moyens de devenir un acteur de politique étrangère qui compte.

Premièrement, la campagne franco-britannique pour une intervention est le dernier exemple en date de politique étrangère européenne menée par un petit nombre d’états membres très actifs. Peu importe le sujet, obtenir un accord est compliqué dans une Europe à 27. Par contre, il est beaucoup plus facile d’obtenir un accord viable une fois qu’un leadership a été démontré.

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