¿La expansión de Europa o de Putin?

VARSOVIA - Uno de los méritos del muro de Berlín era que establecía claramente dónde terminaba Europa. Sin embargo, ahora el asunto de las fronteras de Europa se ha convertido en un tema clave de debate en la Unión Europea. Las recientes amenazas del presidente ruso, Vladimir Putin, de apuntar misiles a Ucrania resalta lo que está en juego en el resultado de ese debate.

La caída del muro en 1989 obligó a los funcionarios de la Comisión Europea a desempolvar sus mapas para ubicar lugares de los que sabían muy poco y que les interesaban menos. Leon Brittan, en ese entonces comisario y partidario de la ampliación, recuerda que algunos funcionarios y países incluso esperaban que se mantuvieran las delimitaciones anteriores a 1989. Sentían que la ampliación incluso hacia los países escandinavos y alpinos estaba yendo demasiado lejos. Fue hasta 1993 que la UE reconoció oficialmente que la membresía para todos los países del ex bloque soviético podía ser un objetivo de largo plazo.

Actualmente, el debate sobre las fronteras de Europa no se limita nada más a los funcionarios o grupos de expertos. A mediados de 2005, los electores de Francia y los Países Bajos rechazaron el proyecto de tratado constitucional de la UE, debido, en parte, al temor de que la ampliación estuviera avanzando demasiado rápido y demasiado lejos. “No queremos que los rumanos decidan cómo debemos ordenar nuestras vidas”, se quejaba un profesor holandés.

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