توسعة أوروبا أم توسع بوتن؟

وارسو ـ من بين حسنات سور برلين أنه كان يعين بوضوح الحد الذي تنتهي عنده أوروبا. أما الآن فقد تحولت مسألة حدود أوروبا إلى مادة للنِقاش في الاتحاد الأوروبي. إن التهديد الأخير الذي أطلقه الرئيس الروسي فلاديمير بوتن بتوجيه صواريخه نحو أوكرانيا يسلط الضوء على المخاطر التي تتهدد أوروبا في المحصلة النهائية لهذه المناقشة.

بعد انهيار السور في العام 1989 اضطر المسئولون في المفوضية الأوروبية إلى نفض الغبار عن الأطالس الجغرافية بحثاً عن معلومات عن أماكن لم يعرفوا عنها من قبل ولم يهتموا بها إلا قليلاً. ويذكر ليون بريتان ، المفوض الأوروبي آنذاك ونصير التوسعة، أن بعض المسئولين والدول الأوروبية كانوا يتمنون لو يتم الحفاظ على خط ما قبل 1989. وكان هؤلاء يرون أن التوسعة ذهبت إلى أبعد مما ينبغي، حتى بالنسبة للدول الاسكندنافية ودول الألب. ولم يعلن الاتحاد الأوروبي رسمياً أن التحاق بلدان الكتلة السوفييتية سابقاً بعضويته ربما يشكل هدفاً بعيد الأمد إلا في العام 1993.

واليوم لم تعد المناقشات الدائرة بشأن حدود أوروبا محصورة في الدوائر الرسمية أو مراكز البحوث. ففي منتصف العام 2005، رفض الناخبون في فرنسا وهولندا المعاهدة الدستورية التمهيدية للاتحاد الأوروبي، فكان رفضهم لها مدفوعاً جزئياً بتخوفهم من أن تكون التوسعة أسرع مما ينبغي وأبعد مما ينبغي. وطبقاً لتعبير أحد أساتذة الجامعة في هولندا: "نحن لا نريد أن يقرر الرومانيون بالنيابة عنا كيف ينبغي لنا أن ننظم حياتنا".

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