Excepcionalismo europeo

PARÍS – La creación de la unión económica y monetaria europea es única en la historia del estado soberano. La eurozona constituye una «sociedad de estados» de un tipo completamente nuevo, que trasciende el concepto westfaliano de soberanía.

Al igual que las personas en una sociedad, los países de la eurozona son tanto independientes como interdependientes. Pueden afectarse entre sí positiva y negativamente. La buena gobernanza requiere que las instituciones de cada estado miembro y de la Unión Europea cumplan sus responsabilidades. Sobre todo, la unión económica y monetaria significa simplemente eso: dos uniones, una monetaria y otra económica.

La unión monetaria europea ha funcionado notablemente. Desde que se instituyó el euro en 1999, se mantuvo la estabilidad de precios en 17 países para 332 millones de personas, con una inflación promedio anual de solo el 2,03% –mejor que el record alemán entre 1955 y 1999. Además, la zona del euro creó 14,5 millones de puestos de trabajo desde 1999, frente a los 8,5-9 millones generados en Estados Unidos. Esto no significa que Europa no tenga un problema significativo de desempleo; pero no hay una inferioridad europea obvia, todas las economías desarrolladas deben impulsar la creación de empleos.

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