الاستثنائية الأوروبية

باريس ــ كان إنشاء الاتحاد الاقتصاد والنقدي في أوروبا حدثاً فريداً من نوعه في تاريخ الدول ذات السيادة. فمنطقة اليورو تشكل "مجتمعاً من الدول" من نوع جديد تماما، نوع يسمو فوق المفهوم التقليدي للسيادة.

ومثلها كمثل الأفراد في أي مجتمع تتمتع دول منطقة اليورو بالاستقلال، ولكن يربط بين كل منها والأخريات نوعاً من الاعتماد المتبادل. وبوسع كل منها أن تؤثر على الدول الأخرى سلباً أو إيجابا. ويتطلب الحكم الرشيد أن تفي الدول الأعضاء فرادى ومؤسسات الاتحاد الأوروبي بمسؤولياتها. فالاتحاد الاقتصادي والنقدي يعني في المقام الأول هذا على وجه التحديد: اتحادين، نقدي واقتصادي.

وكان نجاح الاتحاد النقدي الأوروبي ملحوظا. فمنذ إطلاق اليورو في عام 1999، تم الحفاظ على استقرار الأسعار بالنسبة لسبع عشرة دولة و332 مليون مواطن، مع متوسط تضخم سنوي لا يتجاوز 2,03% ــ وهذا أفضل من سجل ألمانيا على مدى الفترة 1955-1999. كما نجحت منطقة اليورو فضلاً عن ذلك في إنشاء 14,5 مليون وظيفة جديدة منذ عام 1999، مقارنة بنحو 8,5 مليون إلى 9 مليون وظيفة في الولايات المتحدة. وهذا لا يعني أن أوروبا لا تعاني من مشكلة بطالة خطيرة؛ ولكن أوروبا لا تعاني من دونية واضحة: فكل الاقتصادات المتقدمة يتوجب عليها أن تعمل على تعزيز خلق فرص العمل.

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