Les fondamentaux énergétiques de l’Europe

MADRID – Pour la troisième fois cette année, les problématiques énergétiques ont dominé la feuille de route du Conseil européen de Bruxelles du mois dernier. Ce souci croissant dont font preuve les dirigeants européens à l’égard des aspects énergétiques revêt aujourd’hui pleinement son sens, compte tenu de la confluence de trois menaces existentielles pour l’Union européenne : démarche révisionniste de la part de la Russie, déclin de la compétitivité des entreprises européennes, et changement climatique. Dans la mesure où ces évolutions viennent défier les valeurs de l’Europe, la viabilité de son modèle social, et la sécurité planétaire à long terme, il incombe aujourd’hui aux dirigeants européens de bâtir un nouveau système de l’énergie, qui garantisse un approvisionnement fiable, des tarifs raisonnables, ainsi qu’une durabilité écologique.

La bonne nouvelle, c’est que ce cadre émerge d’ores et déjà, susceptible de faciliter cette initiative. En effet, au-delà des objectifs largement débattus concernant la production énergétique pour 2030 – qui englobent les émissions de gaz à effet de serre, l’efficience énergétique, et les ressources renouvelables – les conclusions du Conseil européen promeuvent les aspects fondamentaux d’une approche concrète et efficace autour de l’énergie. S’ils entendent joindre la parole aux actes, les Européens devront toutefois adopter une vision unifiée, jusqu’à présent manifestement absente de la politique énergétique de l’UE.

L’élément le plus tangible du cadre de politique énergétique émergent de l’UE réside dans son marché intérieur de l’énergie qui, une fois achevé, permettra une circulation sans entrave des énergies, ainsi que les investissements s’y rattachant dans l’ensemble de l’UE. Ce marché énergétique intégré permettrait de réaliser des économies significatives – estimées jusqu’à hauteur de 40 milliards € chaque année jusqu’en 2030 – conférant ainsi à l’UE une dynamisation fort nécessaire de sa compétitivité.

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