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Hacia una seguridad europea efectiva

MADRID – Con motivo de la cumbre de Bratislava, se han puesto sobre la mesa varias propuestas para avanzar en la política de seguridad europea. Al contrario de lo que algunos piensan, considero que es un gran acierto. Es urgente atender los problemas de seguridad en Europa y es hora de proponer iniciativas integradoras tras un tiempo de parálisis del proyecto europeo. Los ciudadanos lo consideran un asunto prioritario donde les gustaría ver más liderazgo de la Unión y nuestros amigos y aliados también lo esperan.

Actualmente para poder ofrecer seguridad a los ciudadanos dentro de las fronteras es necesaria la estabilidad en el exterior. Si hubiera duda, los acontecimientos de los últimos meses lo han puesto de manifiesto con total claridad. Resulta obvio afirmar que el problema de los refugiados sería mucho más manejable si la situación en Siria fuera distinta. Siendo así que la seguridad interior y la exterior están íntimamente relacionadas, sería un gran error que la Unión Europea compartimentara sus políticas. Afortunadamente, la Estrategia Global, presentada hace unos meses por la Alta Representante, abunda en esta idea.

Así como la realidad no distingue entre el interior y el exterior, las respuestas –para ser adecuadas– no deben hacerlo. Tradicionalmente, los Estados se han defendido del exterior con medios militares, mientras que organizaban su funcionamiento interior con una panoplia de normas para proteger los derechos de los ciudadanos. A día de hoy, la actuación militar sigue siendo necesaria pero ya no es suficiente. Hace falta incluir una perspectiva civil en la actuación exterior. Todos los activos necesarios para lograr la seguridad deben adecuarse a la realidad de las amenazas y de los conflictos actuales; esto supone, adaptar las capacidades militares a las necesidades de hoy e incorporar capacidades civiles (cuerpos de policía, inteligencia, jueces, médicos e incluso organizaciones no gubernamentales).

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