银行联盟的新年

布鲁塞尔—金融危机爆发五年后,欧洲经济和政治状况依然脆弱。预计今年欧洲将经历轻微衰退,失业率也早升高。除了削减赤字,我们还需要实施1200亿欧元的欧洲投资计划,并深化欧洲单一市场以释放其增长潜力。

但我们还需要其他结构性措施。欧盟必须切断个体成员国与其国内银行系统之间的负反馈环。2008—2011年间,欧盟纳税人给了银行4.5万亿欧元贷款和担保。在一些国家,用公共资金重组银行资本的威胁已导致市场信心的大跌和利率的大增。

欧洲央行已采取决定性手段切断这一恶性循环。此外,17个欧元区成员国也已经达成一致,必须以银行联盟补充共同货币。欧盟委员会发布了单一银行资本要求规则、对各国存款保险机制的共同支持方案,以及泛欧洲清算倒闭银行规则(主要损失将由银行股东和债权人而不是纳税人承担)。

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