refugees walking along train tracks in Hungary Sima Diab/ZumaPress

¿Está Europa sitiada?

BRUSELAS – Muchos europeos sienten que sus países están sitiados, pues grandes cantidades de migrantes cruzan sus fronteras. Enfrentados de primera mano a la llegada de refugiados o a imágenes de refugiados en los diarios, los europeos se dan cuenta del enorme número de personas desesperadas que tratan de entrar al territorio de la Unión Europea por cualquier vía posible. No obstante, deben pasar ahora del reconocimiento a una respuesta unificada.

Parece que las tensiones entre los Estados miembros están aumentando, tal vez porque el problema se percibe muy distinto en cada país. Desde el punto de vista per cápita, Suecia recibe 15 veces más solicitudes de asilo que el Reino Unido, donde la política oficial hacia los refugiados sigue siendo la más hostil. Por otro lado, Alemania se ha convertido ahora en el destino principal en conjunto, que recibe casi 40% del total de la UE; incluso visto en términos per cápita, esta cifra es muchas veces superior al promedio de la UE.

Sin duda hay reglas claras en la forma de definir la responsabilidad de asilo: de acuerdo con el Reglamento de Dublín, el primer Estado miembro de llegada del refugiado es el responsable de tratar su solicitud de asilo. Sin embargo, este procedimiento es sin duda problemático porque pone toda la carga de los refugiados en los países fronterizos de la UE. Si bien durante los años noventa este no fue un gran problema, cuando los países de la UE recibieron en total, solo 300,000 solicitudes de asilo al año, en un contexto anual no puede funcionar cuando se prevé que el número de solicitudes va a triplicarse.

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