refugees walking along train tracks in Hungary Sima Diab/ZumaPress

Europa sotto assedio?

BRUXELLES – Molti europei hanno la sensazione che i propri Paesi siano sotto assalto, visto l’enorme numero di migranti che varcano i confini. Che siano esposti in prima persona ai profughi, o che vedano solamente le immagini sbattute sui giornali, gli europei sono ben consapevoli del vasto numero di persone che tenta di entrare nel territorio dell’Unione europea con qualsiasi mezzo possibile. Ma questa consapevolezza deve essere ora tradotta in una risposta unificata.

Le tensioni tra gli Stati membri sembrano in rapida aumento, forse perché il problema varia fortemente da un Paese all’altro. Su una base pro capite, la Svezia riceve 15 volte più domande di asilo del Regno Unito, dove la politica ufficiale nei confronti dei profughi resta la più ostile. La Germania è ora diventata la meta più ambita, ricevendo quasi il 40% del totale Ue; anche su base pro capite si tratta di una percentuale alta rispetto alla media dell’Unione europea.

Ovviamente, esistono chiare norme sulle responsabilità nei confronti dei profughi: in base al cosiddetto Regolamento di Dublino, il primo Stato membro dell’Ue in cui il profugo fa ingresso è responsabile della domanda di asilo di quel richiedente. Si tratta chiaramente di una questione problematica, dato che pone l’intero peso dei profughi sui Paesi di frontiera dell’Ue. Tutto ciò non ha rappresentato un grosso problema negli anni 90, quando i Paesi dell’Ue ricevevano, in tutto, solo 300.000 domande d’asilo l’anno, ma non può funzionare in un anno in cui ci si aspetta che il totale triplichi.

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