refugees walking along train tracks in Hungary Sima Diab/ZumaPress

Europa unter Belagerung?

BRÜSSEL – Jetzt, wo enorme Mengen von Flüchtlingen nach Europa kommen, haben viele Europäer das Gefühl, ihre Länder würden überfallen. Egal, ob sie die Einwanderer mit eigenen Augen gesehen oder über die Medien von ihnen gehört haben: Die Europäer sind sich der großen Zahl verzweifelter Menschen, die um jeden Preis in die Europäische Union gelangen wollen, sehr bewusst. Aber diese Bewusstheit muss sich erst noch zu einer einheitlichen Antwort entwickeln.

Die Spannungen unter den Mitgliedstaaten scheinen zu steigen – vielleicht deshalb, weil die Probleme je nach Land so unterschiedlich sind. Pro Kopf betrachtet erhält Schweden 15 Mal so viele Asylanträge wie Großbritannien, wo die offizielle Flüchtlingspolitik weiterhin am feindseligsten ist. Allgemein ist das Hauptziel jetzt Deutschland. Das Land nimmt, ebenfalls pro Kopf der Einwohner betrachtet, fast 40% der EU-weiten Einwanderer auf. Sogar unter Berücksichtigung der Einwohnerzahl ist dies ein Vielfaches mehr als der Durchschnitt der EU-Staaten.

Natürlich gibt es klare Regeln dafür, wie die Verantwortlichkeit für Flüchtlinge festgelegt wird: Laut der so genannten Dublin-Regel ist der erste EU-Mitgliedsstaat, den ein Flüchtling betritt, für den Asylantrag dieser Person verantwortlich. Aber dies ist offensichtlich problematisch, da so die gesamte Last der Flüchtlinge auf die Grenzländer der EU verteilt wird. In den 1990ern, als die EU-Länder insgesamt jährlich nur etwa 300.000 Asylanträge bearbeiten mussten, war dies vielleicht noch kein großes Problem, aber in einem Jahr, in dem wahrscheinlich das Dreifache erreicht wird, kann es nicht funktionieren.

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