Europa debe deshacerse del antidumping

Estocolmo – La defensa de la economía europea contra las prácticas comerciales internacionales desleales ha sido desde hace mucho un elemento central de la política exterior de la Unión Europea. Entre algunos políticos y líderes empresariales es casi instintivo que si se considera que la competencia es desleal, la Comisión Europea debe establecer nuevas defensas comerciales. Pero ¿contra qué se defienden los europeos y qué son a fin de cuentas las prácticas comerciales “desleales”?

En ausencia de una reglamentación internacional para la competencia destinada a impedir la fijación predatoria de precios y otras actividades anticompetitivas, las defensas comerciales son una segunda opción. Con mucho, el instrumento más utilizado son los derechos antidumping que tienen el objetivo de imponer ciertos límites a las empresas que se comportan de manera no competitiva. Pero al aumentar los aranceles, los precios también aumentan, lo que a menudo significa una pérdida de bienestar para la sociedad en su conjunto. Las empresas que piden defensas comerciales han ignorado este hecho desde hace mucho tiempo. Lo nuevo, sin embargo, es que las empresas mismas podrían no beneficiarse de las defensas comerciales.

La palabra “defensa” misma evoca la imagen de un Estado nación que está conectado comercialmente al resto del mundo sólo mediante el comercio tradicional. Para un Estado así, todas las importaciones serían verdaderamente mercancías extranjeras, y sus defensas comerciales estarían dirigidas únicamente contra intereses extranjeros.

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