L'Europe doit renoncer à ses mesures anti-dumping

Stockholm – La défense de l'économie européenne contre les pratiques commerciales déloyales est depuis longtemps un élément clé de la politique extérieure de l’Union européenne. C'est presque un réflexe conditionné parmi certains dirigeants et hommes d'affaires européens que d'appeler la Commission européenne à appliquer des instruments de défense commerciale si la concurrence leur paraît déloyale. Mais contre quoi les Européens se défendent-ils et qu'est-ce qu'une pratique commerciale "déloyale" ?

En l'absence de réglementation internationale de la concurrence pour prévenir le dumping et les autres méthodes anticoncurrentielles, les instruments de défense commerciale apparaissent comme la meilleure solution. De loin, l'instrument le plus largement utilisé consiste en des taxes anti-dumping pour imposer des limites aux entreprises qui ont des pratiques anticoncurrentielles. Mais ces taxes entraînent une augmentation des prix au détriment de l'intérêt général. Ce fait a été longtemps ignoré par les entreprises favorables aux mécanismes de défense commerciale. Mais ce qui est nouveau, c'est que les entreprises elles-mêmes risquent de se retrouver perdante à l'application de ces mesures.

Le mot même de "défense" donne l'image d'un pays qui n'a que des échanges commerciaux de type traditionnel avec le reste du monde. Dans un pays de ce genre, toutes les importations sont des produits réellement étrangers et ses mécanismes de défense commerciale sont donc dirigés exclusivement contre des intérêts étrangers.

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