Paul Lachine

欧洲的犹豫之年

纽约——2011年,大部分发达国家的经济状况可谓悲惨,造成这一状况的原因并不只有客观经济动力,大部分要归咎于全球领导人有意或无意追求的政策。事实上,在2008年危机爆发的第一阶段,人们已经达成了令人瞩目的一致,并在2009年4月的伦敦G20峰会共同推出了1万亿美元的救助计划,但这样一致早已烟消云散了。

更糟糕的是,政策不一致更多地出现在国家层面。德国是财政保守主义的核心,而盎格鲁-撒克逊国家则抱定了凯恩斯的大腿。这一分歧让事态大大地恶化了,因为紧密的国际合作是纠正全球失衡这一仍未解决的危机根源所不必可少的。

关于欧洲主权债务的疑虑丛生,以至于人们开始怀疑单一货币能否继续维持下去。但欧元从诞生之日起便是一种不完备的货币。马斯特里赫特条约建立了一个没有政治联盟基础的货币联盟——有共同中央银行而没有共同财政部。欧元的缔造者对这一缺陷心知肚明,但在他们的设计中还有其他缺陷,这些缺陷直到2008年危机爆发后才显现出来。

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