La Francia come trait d'union dell'Europa

PARIGI – Nei dibattiti che imperversano sul futuro dell'Unione europea e dell'Eurozona la Germania occupa sempre il centro della scena, con l'economia nazionale più grande, pari al 28% del PIL totale, e una popolazione equivalente al 25% di quella della zona euro. Attualmente il Paese registra un surplus delle partite correnti superiore a quello cinese, anzi, il più grande del mondo in valore assoluto. E anche se il meccanismo di maggioranza ponderata consente di scavalcarla su alcune questioni, tutti riconoscono che nell'Eurozona si può fare poco senza il beneplacito della Germania.

Sebbene giustificata, l'enfasi sulla Germania non dovrebbe, però, indurre a sottovalutare il ruolo fondamentale della Francia, la quale non solo copre circa il 22% del PIL della zona euro e rappresenta il 20% della sua popolazione - seconda solo alla Germania - ma vanta anche la crescita demografica più sana dell'Eurozona, a differenza di quella tedesca, destinata a diminuire nel prossimo decennio.

Al tempo stesso, va detto che il ruolo cruciale della Francia incide ben più della sua dimensione. Di fatto, quanto a influenzare le sorti dell'Europa, la Francia non è da meno rispetto alla Germania per tre motivi.

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