La croissance inégale, un défi pour l’Europe

Il y a un an, le défi majeur pour la zone euro était sa croissance économique anémiée. Mais 2006 a été une bonne année, le dynamisme surprenant des exportations ayant stimulé une augmentation inattendue de la demande intérieure. L’Allemagne, première puissance économique de la zone euro, a connu un revirement de situation particulièrement frappant, avec une augmentation du PIB annuel de 2,7 % en 2006, soit le taux le plus élevé depuis 2000.

Cette reprise en Allemagne a fait augmenter globalement la croissance en Europe, mais elle a aussi déséquilibré les résultats au sein de la zone euro : l’Allemagne connaît une croissance plus rapide que les autres grandes économies, la France et l’Italie.

L’Allemagne a accompli cet exploit grâce à une réorganisation radicale de son secteur privé, une « révolution silencieuse » opérée entre 2001 et 2005. Tandis que les observateurs et les commentateurs constataient la lenteur de la croissance économique globale, en coulisses d’importants changements avaient lieu dans l’indifférence quasi-générale.

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