Der europäische Solidaritätsimperativ

LONDON – Als Mario Draghi, der Präsident der Europäischen Zentralbank, öffentlich bekannt gab, die EZB würde tun, “was auch immer nötig ist”, um die Stabilität des Euro auch in Zukunft sicherzustellen, hatte diese Bemerkung einen sofortigen und bemerkenswerten Effekt. Die Kosten der Kreditaufnahme Italiens und Spaniens gingen dramatisch zurück, die Aktienmärkte schossen nach oben und die kürzliche Abwärtsbewegung des Euro-Wechselkurses wurde plötzlich gestoppt.

Wie lang die Effekte von Draghis Intervention – mitsamt der öffentlichen Unterstützung durch die deutsche Kanzlerin Angela Merkel, den französischen Präsidenten François Hollande und den italienischen Premierminister Mario Monti – anhalten werden, ist noch unklar. Mit Sicherheit aber zeigen Draghis Aussagen und die damit verbundenen Reaktionen, dass die grundlegenden Probleme der Eurozone nicht in erster Linie finanzieller oder wirtschaftlicher Natur sind, sondern politisch, psychologisch und institutionell.

Internationale Beobachter haben Draghis Bekenntnis, zur Rettung des Euro “alles zu tun”, deshalb so stark beachtet, weil viele von ihnen in letzter Zeit daran zu zweifeln begonnen haben, dass auch andere europäische Staatsführer eine solche Verpflichtung eingehen würden. (Manche dieser Zweifel beruhen natürlich auf politischem und finanziellem Eigennutz: Eine bestimmte Strömung des Finanzkapitalismus sieht im Euro eine Bedrohung, und ihre Anhänger würden alles ihnen mögliche tun, um ihn zu Fall zu bringen.)

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