L'Europe en danger

BERLIN – Peu à peu tout le monde réalise, même les Allemands, que la crise financière prolongée peut détruire entièrement le projet de construction européenne en raison des faiblesses de la zone euro et de ses fondations. Ces faiblesses sont davantage politiques que financières ou économiques.

Le traité de Maastricht a créé une union monétaire, mais l'union politique, une condition préalable indispensable au succès de la monnaie commune, est restée à l'état de promesse. L'euro et les pays qui l'ont adopté en payent maintenant le prix. La zone euro repose maintenant sur les fondations branlantes d'une confédération d'Etat qui veulent une union monétaire tout en conservant leur souveraineté budgétaire. Or cela ne peut pas fonctionner en cas de crise.

Au début de la crise, en 2007-2008, il aurait encore été possible de remédier aux défauts fondamentaux de la zone euro si les dirigeants allemands avaient accepté qu'il y ait une réponse européenne commune à la crise. Mais ils ont préféré maintenir la priorité à la nation – et par conséquent à une approche confédérale de l'Europe.

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