欧洲的科研危机

二战之后,大多欧洲人都一致认为科学研究不仅能够促进他们的经济发展,还能提升他们相对于美国的技术自治并对社会变革起到催化作用。基于国际科学界之间的团结能够有助于改善前敌国之间的关系的认识,英国皇家科学院大力倡导创立德国马普学会(German Max Planck Society)。由此,旨在联合欧洲基础科研工作的大型项目,如欧洲核研究机构(CERN)、欧洲宇航局(ESA)和欧洲分子生物学组织(EMBO)才得以成立。

而当今,科学研究却在几乎所有的欧洲国家(瑞典、芬兰和冰岛除外)呈衰退之势。现有人才被浪费,对年轻人的吸引力不断丧失。平均而言,一位在美国工作的年轻欧洲科学家所得到的研究支持是在欧洲的2.5倍。因此,在欧洲形成人才流失的局面也就不足为奇了。的确,相较于美国的8名和日本的9名,欧洲每千人中的科研人员仅5名。尽管有着深厚的科研传统,这一数字在中欧则更为严峻。欧盟一体化的成本还可能会进一步将发展重点从科学和教育方面转移开去。

日益压缩的预算也令资深科学家们举步维艰。例如,在生命科学领域,基金会们发现寻找高层次的欧洲科研人员颁发奖金成为难题。这倒不是因为科研水平的下降,而是因为高水准的可持续支持使美国科研机构的领导者们更能将新的理念转化为科学发现。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/WBZPVX8/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now