欧洲大陆上不是欧洲人的欧洲人

民族国家建立的基础是民族和领土的统一,而它们的历史和政治发展依靠的是集体认同感。当某个民族团体认定自身在领土边界内生存受到威胁或者缺乏效率,开始寻求通常情况下与大规模暴力联系在一起的武力扩张时,帝国就出现了。

西欧只是在第二次世界大战之后,当希特勒主义成为过去而斯大林主义构成现实威胁的时候才找到了一条不同的发展道路。西欧学者们意识到,民族主义和帝国主义在国家建设中都是不能接受的方法,而欧洲的稳定需要一个可以也理应扩展的国家联盟,但这样的联盟永远也不会演变成帝国。

西欧的政治精英们很快采取了这样的策略,而美国的“欧洲-大西洋”政治理念与马歇尔计划(Marshall Plan)对这项新生的策略起了决定性的作用。《罗马公约》与欧洲理事会的成立标志着实现了法律、经济和政治上的突破,但政治上的突破目前还只局限在单纯的哲学领域。

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