La próxima pesadilla de Europa

CAMBRIDGE – Como si las derivaciones económicas de una total cesación de pagos de Grecia no fueran suficientemente pavorosas, las consecuencias políticas pueden ser todavía peores. Una ruptura caótica de la eurozona provocaría un daño irreparable al proyecto de integración europea, que es la columna central sobre la que se sustenta la estabilidad política de Europa desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial. No sólo desestabilizaría la periferia europea más endeudada, sino también a países centrales como Francia y Alemania, que fueron los arquitectos del proyecto.

Este escenario pesadillesco también sería una victoria para el extremismo político, similar a lo ocurrido en la década de 1930. El fascismo, el nazismo y el comunismo fueron hijos de un rechazo contra la globalización que venía gestándose desde fines del siglo XIX, alimentado por los temores de grupos que se sintieron despojados y amenazados por el avance de las fuerzas de mercado y de las élites cosmopolitas.

El libre comercio y el patrón oro habían obligado a descuidar prioridades internas, como la reforma social, la construcción nacional y la reafirmación cultural. La crisis económica y el fracaso de la cooperación internacional no solamente debilitaron la globalización, sino también a las élites que sostenían el orden existente.

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