La próxima movida de Europa

Desde que Francia y Holanda rechazaron el Tratado Constitucional propuesto por la Unión Europea, los líderes de la UE estuvieron ocupados apuntándose mutuamente con el dedo o culpando a los ciudadanos franceses y holandeses de no entender la pregunta que les habían formulado. Pero ni todas las acusaciones del mundo pueden ocultar el hecho de que, 50 años después de la creación de la Comunidad Europea, Europa necesita con suma urgencia un nuevo marco político, si no un nuevo proyecto, para apuntalar su unidad.

Sin duda, los ciudadanos franceses y holandeses no respondieron a la pregunta que supuestamente debían responder. Su voto fue una protesta contra la globalización, un rechazo del mundo contemporáneo, con sus mecanismos de gobierno distantes e incomprensibles. Al igual que el movimiento anti-globalización, el nuevo anti-europeísmo puede considerarse como el reclamo de un "mundo diferente" -en este caso, un "alter-europeísmo".

Las dos guerras mundiales y la Guerra Fría forjaron la integración europea como un proyecto de paz, de defensa de los valores fundamentales de Occidente y de prosperidad económica común. Pero el colapso del comunismo en 1989, y la posibilidad de superar las divisiones históricas del continente, ahora requerían una redefinición del proyecto europeo. Los Tratados de Maastricht (1992) y Amsterdam (1997) crearon una nueva estructura organizacional para la UE y sentaron las bases para instituciones políticas a la altura del poder económico de Europa. El Tratado de Niza (2000) fue el resultado de un acuerdo bastante pobre.

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