La prochaine étape de l’Europe

Depuis que la France et les Pays-bas ont rejeté le Traité établissant une Constitution pour l’Europe, les dirigeants européens n’ont cessé de se pointer du doigt et d’accuser les citoyens français et néerlandais d’avoir mal compris la question qui leur était posée. Mais ce n’est pas en pointant du doigt à tout va que l’on fera oublier, cinquante ans après la création de la Communauté, que l’Europe a terriblement besoin d’un nouveau cadre politique, sinon d’un nouveau projet, pour consolider son unité.

Certes, les Français et les Néerlandais n’ont pas répondu à la question qui leur était posée. Leur vote a été une protestation contre la mondialisation, un rejet du monde contemporain et de ses mécanismes d’administration distants et hermétiques. A l’image du mouvement anti‑mondialisation, le nouvel anti-européanisme peut être considéré comme la demande d’un « monde différent » – en l’occurrence, un « alter-européanisme ».

Les deux guerres mondiales et la guerre froide ont façonné l’intégration européenne pour en faire un projet de paix, une prospérité économique commune et pour défendre les valeurs fondamentales occidentales. Mais la chute du communisme en 1989 et la maîtrise des divisions historiques du continent exigent désormais de redéfinir le projet européen. Les traités de Maastricht (1992) et d’Amsterdam (1997) ont créé une nouvelle structure organisationnelle pour l’UE et jeté les bases d’institutions politiques à la hauteur de son pouvoir économique. Le Traité de Nice (2000) n’est que le résultat d’un médiocre compromis.

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