Příští krok Evropy

Od chvíle, kdy Francie a Nizozemsko odmítly navrhovanou Ústavní smlouvu Evropské unie, zaměstnává lídry EU to, že ukazují prstem jeden na druhého nebo obviňují francouzské a nizozemské voliče z nepochopení otázky, jež jim byla položena. Ani sebevětší míra osočování však nemůže zakrýt skutečnost, že 50 let po vytvoření Evropského společenství Evropa k podepření své jednoty zoufale potřebuje nový politický rámec, ne-li přímo nový projekt.

Ovšemže, francouzští a nizozemští občané neodpovídali na otázku, na niž se odpověď očekávala. Jejich hlasy byly protestem proti globalizaci, odmítnutím současného světa s jeho vzdálenými a nepochopitelnými mechanismy vládnutí. Tak jako v případě antiglobalizačního hnutí lze i nové antievropanství považovat za poptávku po „jiném světě“ – konkrétně za „alter-evropanství“.

Dvě světové války a válka studená formovaly evropskou integraci jako projekt míru, obrany základních hodnot Západu a společné hospodářské prosperity. Pád komunismu v roce 1989 a šance na překonání historických předělů kontinentu pak vyžadovaly předefinování evropského projektu. Smlouvy z Maastrichtu (1992) a Amsterdamu (1997) daly EU novou organizační strukturu a položily základy politických institucí odpovídajících hospodářské síle Evropy. Smlouva z Nice (2000) byla výsledkem poměrně chatrného kompromisu.

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