La nueva misión de Europa en África

La misión militar de la Unión Europea para asegurar el desarrollo de unas elecciones justas y libres en la República Democrática del Congo (RDC) ha mostrado lo que puede lograr la Política Europea de Seguridad y Defensa (PESD) en África. Un contingente de aproximadamente 2,500 efectivos de 22 países se trasladó a la RDC a mediados de 2003 para apoyar a las tropas de Naciones Unidas y suministró una fuerza de reacción rápida que extinguió el desorden en Kinshasa antes de que pudiera estallar en violencia generalizada. Tres años después, la Operación Artemisa, una misión similar de la UE en la provincia oriental de Ituri, demostró una vez más la determinación de Europa para utilizar su capacidad militar a fin de apuntalar un proceso de paz a largo plazo.

Para algunas personas, el poder militar puro es la única medida verdadera del poder. Pero hay mucho más por qué elogiar a las 16 misiones militares de la UE que hasta la fecha se han realizado en apoyo de la PESD. Hay muchos lugares de África que necesitan ayuda y Europa puede y debe dar una mano. Además, el nuevo estilo de participación político-militar en África tampoco es un retroceso al colonialismo.

Es cierto que actualmente muchos países africanos padecen de inestabilidad, fracaso del Estado, conflictos regionales, competencia política violenta al interior y otra serie de problemas, incluyendo masacres y actos de brutalidad a gran escala, guerra civil, flujo masivo de refugiados, desórdenes económicos y daños ambientales. Con todo, la situación general en África no es uniformemente sombría. Algunos países africanos son relativamente estables y prósperos y el continente tiene una población joven que pronto rebasará los mil millones de personas, reservas minerales abundantes y un dinamismo inherente.

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