La Constitution interminable de l'Europe

Le 29 octobre prochain, les dirigeants de l'Union Européenne se réuniront à Rome pour signer le nouveau Traité constitutionnel de l'Union. L'aspect unique du document ne manquera certes pas d'être couvert d'éloges, parfaitement justifiées par ailleurs, car la Constitution européenne ne ressemble à aucune autre constitution existante.

La plupart des constitutions, y compris la Constitution américaine, aspirent à " geler l'histoire " ou à instaurer un ordre institutionnel durable qui résistera aux changements. En effet, une constitution incarne par nature une tentative visant à " soumettre " l'histoire, à lui faire suivre les lois des hommes plutôt que sa propre logique, y compris les contingences fâcheuses et les caprices du destin.

Par contraste, la Constitution européenne est rédigée sur la compréhension tacite que les institutions qu'elle établit sont passagères, qu'elles sont loin d'être optimales et qu'il serait souhaitable de les changer tout de suite si les réalités politiques le permettent. Mais les réalités de la politique dans l'Europe d'aujourd'hui ne permettent pas de rédiger le type de document que les signataires souhaitaient réellement préparer, de sorte que la constitution qu'ils ont conçue vise à établir un processus de changement évolutionniste qui motivera des améliorations supplémentaires à l'avenir, améliorations qui, espèrent les auteurs, oblitèreront un jour les dispositions qui seront mises en place par la Constitution européenne actuelle.

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