Neoliberální výzva pro Evropu

Už víc než 20 let tvrdím, že vysoké míry nezaměstnanosti v západní Evropě jsou neudržitelné. Na konci 70. let monetaristé sázeli na to, že pouhé dočasné a mírné zvýšení nezaměstnanosti dokáže přitáhnout uzdu plíživé – a cválající – inflaci průmyslového Západu a že zpětně se bude mít za to, že cena zaplacená za návrat k efektivní cenové stabilitě stála za to. V Británii a ve Spojených státech tato monetaristická sázka vyšla. V západní Evropě ovšem nikoliv.

Během posledních 25 let v Evropě rostla nezaměstnanost, jelikož v boji proti inflaci byla zpřísněna měnová politika a zvýšeny úrokové míry. Když však inflace podlehla, nezaměstnanost neopadla – nebo alespoň ne o mnoho. Jestliže nezaměstnanost neuvízla přímo na úrovních Velké deprese, držela se dost vysoko na to, aby se určující zkušeností stala dlouhodobá ztráta zaměstnání nebo strach z ní.

Ve společnostech, kde se oficiální míra nezaměstnanosti po celé generace drží na 10% nebo ještě výš, selhal vládní hospodářský management. Celých 20 let se mi tedy zdálo, že podloží politické rovnováhy západní Evropy – korporativní vyjednávání a rozsáhlé sociální pojištění na jedné straně a přísné monetární politiky na straně druhé – se musí rozpadnout.

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