L’erronea ricerca di crescita dell’Europa

BRUXELLES – Qualche mese fa, 25 dei 27 stati membri dell’Unione europea hanno firmato un trattato in cui si sono impegnati a rispettare dei severi limiti di deficit a livello nazionale. Questa “intesa fiscale” è stata la condizione fondamentale affinché la Germania approvasse un aumento sostanziale del finanziamento ai fondi di salvataggio dell’eurozona e affinché la Banca Centrale Europea portasse avanti la sua “operazione di rifinanziamento a lungo termine” (LTRO) di 1 trilione di euro, essenziale per la stabilizzazione dei mercati.

Oggi l’attenzione dell’eurozona si è tuttavia spostata sulla crescita. Si tratta di uno schema ricorrente all’interno delle politiche europee: l’austerità viene indicata e difesa come pre-requisito necessario per la crescita, ma poi, con l’incalzare della recessione, è la crescita stessa a diventare il pre-requisito di un’austerità a lungo termine.

Circa quindici anni fa, l’Europa ha attraversato un ciclo simile. All’inizio degli anni ’90, nella fase di delineazione dell’Unione Monetaria Europea (UEM), la Germania voleva a tutti costi il ”Patto di Stabilità” come prezzo per abbandonare il marco tedesco. Con la caduta in recessione dell’Europa nel 1995, l’attenzione è poi passata alla crescita trasformando il “Patto di Stabilità” in “Patto di Stabilità e Crescita” con l’adozione, nel 1997, della risoluzione su crescita e occupazione da parte del Consiglio europeo.

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