Europas Instabilitätsmechanismus

MÜNCHEN – Bis 2010 sollte Europa „die wettbewerbsstärkste und dynamischste Wissensgesellschaft der Welt“ werden. So lautete jedenfalls 2000 die offizielle Ankündigung der Europäischen Kommission anlässlich der so genannten Lissabon-Agenda. Nun ist ein Jahrzehnt nach diesem vollmundigen Versprechen vergangen, und es ist offiziell: Europa ist nicht der Champion der Welt, sondern eher ihr Nachzügler. Die aktuellen EU-Mitglieder wuchsen in den letzten zehn Jahren um 14 Prozent, dagegen die USA um 18 Prozent, Lateinamerika um 39 Prozent, Afrika um 63 Prozent, Nahost um 60 Prozent, Russland um 59 Prozent, Singapur, Südkorea, Indonesien und Taiwan um 52 Prozent, Indien um 104 Prozent und China um 171 Prozent.

Die Europäer wollten ihr Ziel unter anderem durch Ausbau des Umweltschutzes und mehr soziale Kohäsion erzielen – durchaus wünschenswerte Ziele, aber sicherlich keine geeigneten Wachstumsstrategien. Die Lissabon-Agenda hat sich als Witz entpuppt.

Der europäische Stabilitäts- und Wachstumspakt von 1995 hatte ein ähnliches Schicksal. Die EU-Länder einigten sich darauf, ihre Staatsdefizite auf drei Prozent des Bruttoinlandsproduktes zu beschränken, um eine Schuldendisziplin unter dem Euro sicherzustellen, so dass kein Land die neue Währung missbrauchen könnte, um seine Nachbarn zu Rettungspaketen zu zwingen. Tatsächlich haben die EU-Länder die Drei-Prozent-Hürde 97 Mal überschritten.

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