La alquimia financiera de Europa

CHICAGO – Es universalmente reconocido que un factor clave detrás de la crisis financiera de 2007-2008 fue la difusión de obligaciones de deuda colateralizada (CDOs, por su sigla en inglés), los infames vehículos de propósitos especiales que transformaron la deuda de menor calificación en deuda altamente calificada. Sin embargo, a medida que estas estructuras fueron perdiendo popularidad en Wall Street, cobraron popularidad del otro lado del Atlántico.

Después de todo, el Mecanismo Europeo de Estabilidad Financiera (EFSF, por su sigla en inglés), creado por los países de la eurozona en mayo pasado, es la mayor CDO que se haya generado hasta el momento. Al igual que con las CDOs, el EFSF se promocionó como una manera de reducir el riesgo. Desafortunadamente, el resultado podría ser similar: todo el sistema bancario en picada.

Las CDOs son una forma de alquimia financiera: vehículos de propósitos especiales que compran el equivalente financiero del plomo (títulos respaldados por hipotecas de baja calificación) y se autofinancian principalmente con el equivalente financiero del oro (bonos AAA sumamente buscados). Esta transformación se basa en un principio sólido y dos principios débiles.   

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