Финансовая алхимия Европы

ЧИКАГО. Общепризнано, что ключевым фактором, лежащим в основе финансового кризиса 2007-2008 годов, было распространение облигаций, обеспеченных долговыми обязательствами (CDO), печально известные средства специального назначения (SPV), которые превращали долги с низким рейтингом  в долги с высоким рейтингом. По мере того как эти структуры теряли популярность на Уолл-Стрит, они обретали популярность по другую сторону Атлантики.

В конце концов, Фонд европейской финансовой стабильности (EFSF), созданный странами еврозоны в мае, и есть крупнейший из когда-либо созданных CDO. Так же, как и CDO, EFSF был разрекламирован, как способ уменьшить риски. К сожалению, результат мог быть похожим: вся банковская система, охваченная паникой.

CDO – это форма финансовой алхимии: средства специального назначения, которые покупают финансовый эквивалент свинца (ценные бумаги, заложенные под гарантию с низким рейтингом) и сами финансы, главным образом с финансовым эквивалентом золота (дорогие, пользующиеся спросом облигации с рейтингом ААА). Эта трансформация основана на одном прочном принципе и двух шатких.

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