Зависть Европы по отношению к доллару

Валютные вопросы могут оказаться в центре внимания не только при осуществлении коммерческих сделок, но и в дипломатических и политических спорах. В таких случаях коммерческие операции усложняются, и возрастает степень неопределенности. Политизация денег в период межвоенной депрессии привела к разрушительным последствиям. Однако опасные валютные войны имели место и в гораздо менее отдаленном прошлом.

В 1960-х годах международный валютный порядок стал предметом серьезной политической борьбы. Каждая сторона имела собственную теорию и объяснение происходящего. Европейцы - в частности французы - выражали недовольство по поводу того, что генерал Шарль де Голль назвал «чрезмерным преимуществом» доллара США. Генерал и его гуру в области валютной политики Жак Рюэфф утверждали, что США использовали статус доллара как главной резервной валюты Бреттонвудской системы фиксированных валютных курсов, чтобы финансировать свои бюджетные дефициты и платить за заграничный военный авантюризм (в то время во Вьетнаме).

Франция призывала тогда к проведению денежной реформы, которая положила бы конец особому положению доллара, и старалась возродить в значительной степени дискредитировавший себя золотой стандарт. Европейцы начали долгое обсуждение преимуществ валютного союза, достижение которого подняло бы европейскую валюту до уровня доллара.

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