Les visionnaires divisés de l'Europe

BERKELEY - Les dirigeants européens, contrairement à l'ancien président américain George H. W. Bush, n'ont jamais eu de problème avec les « visions ». Ils ont toujours su ce qu'ils voulaient que leur continent soit. Mais avoir une vision n'est pas la même chose que la mettre en œuvre. Et quand il s'est agi de mettre leurs idées en pratique, les dirigeants de l'Union européenne, à plusieurs reprises, n'ont pas été à la hauteur.

Cette tension entre les objectifs des Européens et leur capacité à les atteindre se joue à nouveau dans le sillage du récent sommet de l'UE. Les dirigeants européens sont maintenant d'accord sur une vision de ce que l'UE doit devenir : une union économique et monétaire complétée par une union bancaire, financière et politique. Les problèmes commencent dès que la discussion aborde la manière – et surtout le moment – d'établir les trois dernières unions.

L'union bancaire, les dirigeants européens l'ont convenu, consiste à créer une autorité de surveillance unique. Cela signifie l'établissement d'un régime commun de garantie des dépôts et d'un mécanisme de clôture des établissements financiers insolvables. Il s'agit de donner aux moyens de sauvetage de l'UE le pouvoir d'injecter directement des fonds dans les banques qui souffrent d'une insuffisance de capital.

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