Pénombre à midi en Europe

BERKELEY - Il est difficile d’imaginer que la crise européenne puisse encore s’aggraver, mais c’est pourtant ce qui vient de se produire. Lors du sommet qui s’est tenu il y a deux semaines, les dirigeants de l’Union Européenne ne sont parvenus à produire rien de bien substantiel. La Chine et le Brésil sont clairement réticents à l’idée de venir au secours de l’Europe en apportant une injection massive de liquidités étrangères. Et le récent sommet du G20 à Cannes n’a débouché sur aucun accord établissant les mesures éventuelles qui auraient pu permettre de résoudre la crise.

Aujourd’hui, il faut compter avec l’effondrement du gouvernement grec. L’événement déclencheur réside sans doute dans la décision mal avisée du Premier ministre sortant George Papandreou d’appeler à un référendum sur la question du plan de sauvetage de l’UE (porteur de davantage de mesures sévères d’austérité) ; le problème fondamental restant bien sûr une récession brutale qui a rendu inévitable la chute du gouvernement.

La formation d’un nouveau gouvernement d’unité nationale ne signifie pas que le problème grec soit derrière l’Europe ou le monde. Au contraire, le trône du nouveau gouvernement ne sera guère plus stable que celle de son prédécesseur. Jusqu’à ce qu’un espoir, même lointain, de voir la Grèce connaître à nouveau une certaine croissance apparaisse, le problème ne sera pas réglé.

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