Les banques européennes, cause de la crise financière européenne !

BRUXELLES – L'Europe est l'épicentre du deuxième acte de la crise financière mondiale qui s'est transformée en crise de la dette souveraine à l'intérieur de la zone euro. Comment cela a-t-il pu se produire, alors qu'en théorie tous les problèmes semblaient résolus à l'issue du sommet extraordinaire de l'UE en mai qui a décidé de la création du Fonds de soutien à la zone euro, l'EFSF ( European Financial Stability Facility), avec un financement proche de mille milliards d'euros ?

Les promesses de mai ont commencé à se concrétiser. Une structure dédiée qui a été créée au Luxembourg peut déjà compter sur un apport de plusieurs centaines de milliards d'euros des Etats-membres à titre de garantie.

Si elle utilisait toutes les ressources promises (750 milliards d'euros, y compris l'apport du FMI), l'UE pourrait refinancer en totalité pendant deux ans tous les pays en difficulté (le Portugal, l'Espagne et l'Irlande). Par ailleurs, la Banque centrale européenne, la BCE, a affiché sa volonté d'acheter des obligations d'Etat (et des obligations privées) au cas où elle estimerait que le fonctionnement des marchés est entravé.

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