Shoes jewish victims Budapest Julie Kertesz/Flickr

Migration und Erinnerung in Europa

ROM – Es vergeht kaum mehr ein Tag in Europa ohne Berichte über Schiffe voller Migranten, die bei dem Versuch über das Mittelmeer die Küsten Europas zu erreichen untergehen, und über Flüchtlinge in Calais, die bei dem Versuch durch den Eurotunnel nach Großbritannien zu gelangen ums Leben kommen. Diese anhaltende Krise sollte uns das schmerzliche und beschämende Geschehen der jüngeren Geschichte in Erinnerung rufen: Die Zurückweisung, die europäische Juden erfahren haben, die Zuflucht vor der antisemitischen Wut suchten, die ihnen in den 1930er-Jahren in Europa entgegenschlug. Die Flüchtlinge von heute sollten uns auch jene Juden in Erinnerung rufen, die, nachdem sie den Holocaust überlebt hatten, in den Jahren 1946-1947 auf Schiffen über das Mittelmeer in Richtung Palästina aufbrachen, nur um von den Briten in Zypern oder andernorts inhaftiert zu werden.

Fakt ist, dass das Schicksal der Juden, die sich in den 1930er-Jahren in Deutschland zunehmender Verfolgung ausgesetzt sahen und in Mittel- und Osteuropa mit immer mehr antisemitischen Gesetzen konfrontiert waren der übrigen Welt weitgehend gleichgültig war. Diese Gleichgültigkeit war zweifellos von den tief verwurzelten Vorurteilen der damaligen Zeit geprägt und auch von weitverbreitetem Argwohn gegenüber Fremden. „Das Boot ist voll“ war ein häufiger Ausspruch, der bei Regierungen wie auch in der öffentlichen Meinung Widerhall fand.

Im Jahr 1935 ließen die Vereinigten Staaten tatsächlich lediglich 6.000 jüdische Emigranten aus Europa einreisen; Argentinien ließ 3.000 ins Land und 2.000 reisten auf legalem Wege in Brasilien ein. Westeuropa war großzügiger: Frankreich hat 35.000 Emigranten aufgenommen, Belgien und die Niederlande ließen jeweils rund 20.000 einreisen.

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