Building with European Union flags

应对欧洲的政治极化

巴黎—欧洲的2015年始于极左翼的左翼联盟党(Syriza)赢得希腊选举,终于另外三场证明了政治极化日益兴盛的选举。在葡萄牙,社会党(Socialist Party)与此前的死对头共产党结成同盟。在波兰,民主主义的劳动与正义党(PiS)赢得了足够的支持,能够独立组阁。而在西班牙,另一个极左翼政党社会民主党(Podemos)的崛起终结了中左翼的西班牙社会工人党(Socialist Workers’ Party)和中右翼的人民党(Partido Popular)的传统霸权。(此外,在法国,由马琳·勒庞(Marine Le Pen)领导的极右翼政党国民阵线(National Front)也在今年12月的第一轮选举中尽显强势,尽管最后没有赢得胜利。)

个中意义显而易见:选民日益对主流政党深感失望,并愿意给主张激进替代方案的政党一个机会。他们给予支持的政党尽管彼此之间十分不同,但都指责欧盟应该为本国经济和劳动力市场的糟糕状况负责。

诚然,如今激进化并不是欧洲的特有现象。我在其他文章中指出,美国总统候选人唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)之所以能崛起,背后的许多因素与勒庞越来越受到欢迎是一样的。欧洲问题的严重之处在于激进政治与主流治理之间的碰撞。

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