L’Europe au bord de la crise politique

BERKELEY - L’Europe est à nouveau au bord du précipice. Le dernier plan de sauvetage grec, mis en place il y a à peine six semaines, est sur le point de s’effondrer. La crise de confiance a contaminé les grands pays de la zone euro. La survie de l’euro comme celle de l’union Européenne elle-même sont en jeu.

Pour restaurer une certaine confiance, les dirigeants européens ont réagi par une cacophonie de propositions. Jean-Claude Trichet, président de la Banque centrale européenne, a appelé à des règles budgétaires plus strictes. Mario Draghi, président de la Banque d'Italie et successeur désigné de Trichet à la BCE, a appelé à des limites contraignantes non seulement sur les budgets mais également sur tout un ensemble d’autres politiques nationales. Guy Verhofstadt, chef de l'Alliance des démocrates et des libéraux pour l'Europe au Parlement européen, compte parmi les partisans de plus en plus nombreux à se prononcer en faveur de la création d’euro-obligations. Le ministre allemand des Finances, Wolfgang Schäuble, a quant à lui estimé que l’Europe avait besoin de passer à une union fiscale totale.

Si ces propositions ont une chose en commun, c’est bien qu’elles échouent toutes à appréhender les problèmes immédiats de la zone euro. Il se pourrait que certaines d’entre elles, comme un renforcement des règles fiscales et une surveillance plus étroite des politiques affectant la compétitivité, contribuent à parer une crise future, mais elles ne permettront certainement pas de résoudre l’actuelle.

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